After several reviews of the questions, they should be presented to peers and colleagues in the format the instrument is to be administered.
The peers and colleagues should match the items with the specification table and if there are not exact matches, revisions must be made.
To determine if an appropriate instrument is available, a researcher can search literature and commercially available databases to find something suitable to the study.
If it is determined that there are no instruments available that measure the variables in a study, there are four rigorous phases for developing an instrument that accurately measures the variables of interest (Creswell, 2005).
Those four phases are: planning, construction, quantitative evaluation, and validation.
Each phase consists of several steps that must be taken to fully satisfy the requirements for fulfilling a phase.
The second step of phase one is to, again, review the literature to be certain no instruments already exist for the evaluation of the variables of interest.
Once the items are written, they need to be reviewed for clarity, formatting, acceptable response options, and wording.The final version of the assessment was administered to 2,056 students in 39 higher education institutions across the United States.For the data obtained from this large-scale assessment, a unidimensional model in confirmatory factor analysis and the Graded Response Model in item response theory were employed to examine the arguments regarding the internal structure and item properties.From this information, the researcher should develop open ended questions to present to a sample that is representative of the target group.
The open ended questions aid the researcher in determining areas of concern around the constructs to be measured.
Using a mixed-methods study design, different types of validity evidence were gathered and investigated.